Hardwood KNOTTY ALDER is a furniture grade lumber that is commonly seen in doors and cabinets - Clear Alder (no knots) is also available, and both types can have varying amounts of texture added or be completely smooth. Most of the work on my website is made with Alder and it is the most competitively priced furniture grade lumber.
WHITE OAK is another popular option with a modest price increase from Alder. Oak is extremely durable, and White Oak has gained a lot of popularity lately, especially in flooring. Certain stains work better than others, and glazing can help minimize the grain.
Samples for the following can be seen in person...
Maple is the standard for high quality cabinets but also works well for floating shelves and some furniture. Maple has a light wispy grain and lighter coloring that shifts any stains to the lighter end. It works really well for grey tones when you want to minimize red and yellow tones. Pricing is similar to Oak.
Cherry has beautiful grain, and used to be the standard for custom furniture but went out of style because of the typical reddish color. New stain options can give it an updated look, but Cherry can darken over time when exposed to a lot of sunlight. Beautiful, medium tone, smooth grain but a little pricier - between oak/maple and walnut.
Walnut Everyone loves walnut, but it is one of the most expensive North American lumbers commonly available. It has beautiful dark grain, very durable, and has gorgeous coloring. It's almost worth it. ha!